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Liver Cancer

Liver cancer occurs in the cells of your liver which is the largest glandular organ in the body. It’s a vital organ that aids in digestion and stores nutrients such as glucose, so the body remains nourished and free of toxins and harmful substances. So when cancer develops, it destroys liver cells and interferes with the ability of the liver to function normally.

Two Cancer We Treat can form in the liver classified as primary or secondary. While primary liver cancer begins in the cells of the liver, secondary liver cancer develops when cancer cells from another organ spread to the liver. The most common type of liver cancer are:

  • Hepatocellular carcinoma, which develops in the main type of liver cell called hepatocyte.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma, which develops in the small, tube-like bile ducts in the liver and carries bile to the gallbladder.
  • Liver angiosarcoma is a rare form of liver cancer, which develops in the blood vessels of the liver.
  • Hepatoblastoma is an extremely rare form of liver cancer, which mostly develops in children under the age 3.


In the early stages, liver cancer doesn’t cause any symptoms. When symptoms do appear, they can be easily mistaken for other liver conditions, such as jaundice. Symptoms of liver cancer are likely to include:

  • Pain and tenderness in abdomen
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Jaundice
  • Fatigue
    • If the patient experiences any of these symptoms, they should consult with their doctor immediately.


      Liver cancer is caused by mutations in the cell DNA. These mutations cause cells to grow out of control and form a malignant tumour, which is a mass of cancerous cells. In some cases, liver cancer is caused by chronic hepatitis infections. However, liver cancer can also happen in people with no underlying diseases.

      Risk factors:

      While infections can cause liver cancer, there are other factors that can also increase the risk, including:

      • Ageing
      • Hepatitis B or C
      • Cirrhosis, which causes scar tissue to form in your liver
      • Liver diseases, including hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease
      • Diabetes and obesity
      • Fat accumulation in the liver
      • Excessive alcohol consumption


      Our doctors will ask the patients about their symptoms and medical history. They will also perform a physical exam to identify the lumps or other symptoms of liver cancer. For further diagnosis, they may several tests, including:

      • Blood tests to check liver function and to measure levels of proteins, liver enzymes, and bilirubin in the blood.
      • AFP test to check for Alpha-fetoprotein in the blood which can be a sign of liver cancer.
      • Imaging tests such as abdominal CT or MRI scans for the detailed images of the liver and to determine the tumor’s position and size.
      • Biopsy to make a definitive diagnosis of liver cancer. During the biopsy, our doctor will insert a thin needle into the liver to obtain a tissue sample. They may also use a laparoscope to check the liver’s condition and to perform a more precise biopsy. Then, our doctors will examine the sample for cancer cell development, bleeding, bruising and infection.


      In liver cancer, treatment may depend on various factors. These may include the liver function, the stage of the cancer and the levels of alpha-fetoprotein. Based on the diagnosis, possible complications and the patient’s preference, our doctors will recommend the most-effective treatment option for liver cancer.


      It’s the most common treatment option in which the surgeon will surgically remove the tumour ot the entire liver through various approaches. Our doctors implement methods to perform bladder cancer surgery, which are:

      • Hepatectomy to remove either a portion of the liver or all of the liver. This surgery is only viable if the cancer is confined to the liver. The outcome of this surgery is quite positive as the remaining healthy tissue will regrow and replace the missing part.
      • Liver transplant to replace the damaged liver and replace it with a healthy liver from a suitable donor. A transplant can only be done if the cancer hasn’t spread to other organs. So It’s only viable for a small percentage of people with early-stage liver cancer.
      • Ablation to destroy the cancer cells through heat or ethanol injections. It’s performed using local anesthesia and is administered directly to the cancer cells or the area surrounding it. It is mostly advised for people who aren’t candidates for surgery or a transplant.


      In chemotherapy, our doctors will use a group of drugs to stop cancer from spreading. Cancer cells absorb the drugs faster than normal cells, thus slowing their growth. These drugs can be delivered through a vein or a catheter, depending on the stage of cancer.

      Radiation therapy:

      Our surgeon will use controlled radiation to damage or destroy the DNA of cancer cells. Our radiation oncologist will use a machine to direct the energy beams on the cancer cells. It can be used in combination with chemotherapy if surgery isn’t an option.

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