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lung-cancer

Lung cancer

Lung cancer is one of the most common Cancer We Treat and is the leading cause of cancer deaths. While most lung cancer begins in the breathing tube, some can also form in glands, near the bronchi or outside the lungs.

Lung cancer has been categorized into two types. Small cell lung cancer is a rare type of lung cancer that grows and spreads faster. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common and spreads slowly than small cell lung cancer. Its type include:

  • Adenocarcinoma starts near the periphery of the lung and can affect both smokers and non-smokers.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma starts in the breathing tubes near the centre of the chest.
  • Large cell carcinoma also originates near the periphery of lungs. However, it grows rapidly and is often diagnosed when it spreads into the near tissues.
  • Mesothelioma affects the mesothelium, the protective membrane that covers the lungs.

Symptoms:

In the early stages, lung cancer doesn’t cause many symptoms. However, there are few signs that can indicate the cancer’s advancement, which include:

  • Chronic cough
  • Blood in phlegm
  • Chest and back pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Weakness and fatigue

As cancer spreads, it may also cause respiratory infections such as bronchitis or pneumonia. If one suspects they have lung cancer or have any of these symptoms, they must consult with the doctor right away.

Causes:

Like other cancers, lung cancer develops when healthy cells start mutating, giving way to abnormal, uncontrollable cell growth. These cells form a benign or malignant tumour that can spread into the surrounding tissues and other parts of the body.

Risk factors:

Several factors can significantly increase the risk of lung cancer. While some can be controlled by slight changes in lifestyle, others require a more cautious approach. These factors can include:

  • Ageing
  • Smoking
  • History of cancer in the family
  • Exposure to second-hand smoke , asbestos and carcinogens
  • Radiation exposure

Diagnosis:

Our doctor will perform a physical exam to determine the cause of the symptoms and to check for any abnormalities. If they suspect lung cancer, our doctors can also order a variety of tests, which include:

  • Imaging tests, such as X-ray, MRI, CT or PET scan to identify any abnormal growth or lesions in the chest area.
  • Sputum cytology to check the phlegm for cancer cells or lung infections.
  • Biopsy to remove a sample tissue from the affected area and test it for cancer cells.
  • Bronchoscopy to closely examine the lungs using a bronchoscope.
  • Mediastinoscopy to examine the lymph nodes and to take samples for a biopsy.

Treatment:

Based on the diagnosis, possible complications and the patient’s preference, our doctors select the most-viable treatment option for lung cancer. These can include:

Surgery:

It’s the most-effective treatment for lung cancer and has better outcome and lower recurrence rate. During the procedure, our surgeon will remove the cancerous tissues along with the surrounding tissues. Our doctors may use various approaches to perform lung cancer surgery, which are:

  • Wedge resection to remove only a part of the lung that contains the tumour.
  • Segmental resection to remove a slightly larger part of the lung along with the cancer.
  • Lobectomy to remove the entire lobe of one lung along with the cancer.
  • Pneumonectomy to remove an entire lung along with the cancer.

Chemotherapy:

In chemotherapy, our doctors will use a group of drugs to stop cancer from spreading. Cancer cells absorb the drugs faster than normal cells, thus slowing their growth. These drugs can be delivered through a vein or a catheter, depending on the stage of cancer.

Radiation therapy:

Our surgeon will use controlled radiation to damage or destroy the DNA of cancer cells. Our radiation oncologist will use a machine to direct the energy beams on the cancer cells. It can be used in combination with chemotherapy if surgery isn’t an option.

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